Graphics are created using computers in a illustrated form with the help of
Used of Graphics
Graphics are commonly used in business and economics to create financial charts and
tables. Business Graphics can be used to highlight changes over a period of time.
Advertising is one of the most profitable uses of graphics; artists often do advertising work or
take advertising potential into account when creating art, to increase the chances of
selling the artwork.
The use of graphics for overtly political purposes—cartoons, graffiti, poster art, flag design,
etc.—is a centuries old practice which thrives today in every part of the world
Graphics are heavily used in textbooks, especially those concerning subjects such
as geography, science, and mathematics, in order to illustrate theories and concepts, such
as the human anatomy. Diagrams are also used to label photographs and pictures.
Educational animation is an important emerging field of graphics. Animated graphics have
obvious advantages over static graphics when explaining subject matter that changes over
Film and animation
Computer graphics are often used in the majority of new feature films, especially those with
a large budget. Films that heavily use computer graphics include The Lord of the Rings film ,
The Harry Potter films, Spider-Man .
Pixel is a single point in a graphic image. Short for Picture Element,.Graphics
monitors display pictures by dividing the display screen into thousands (or millions) of
pixels, arranged in rows and columns. The pixels are so close together that they
appear connected. On color monitors, each pixel is actually composed of three dots — a
red, a blue,and a green one.Per pixel information includes things like color, location within
A megapixel (MP or Mpx) is one million pixels, and is a term used not only for the
number of pixels in an image, but to express the number of image sensor elements
of digital cameras or the number of display elements of digital displays. For example,
a camera with an array of 2048 × 1536 sensor elements is commonly said to have
“3.1 megapixels” (2048 × 1536 = 3,145,728).
Resolutionrefers to the sharpness and clarity of an image. The term is most often used to
describe monitors, printers, and bit-mapped graphic images. The no. of pixels across
a line or down to a column indicates the spatial resolution.
Screen resolution determines the maximum image area of the computer screen. The
standard resolutions are: (horizontal x vertical)
640 x 480
800 x 600
1024 x 768
1280 x 1024
1600 x 1200
Resolution -Number of pixels in given area defines the resolution of the digital image.
Below is an illustration of how the same image might appear at different pixel
resolutions, if the pixels were poorly rendered as sharp squares (normally, a smooth
image reconstruction from pixels would be preferred, but for illustration of pixels, the
sharp squares make the point
In the case of dot-matrix and laser printers, the resolution indicates the number of
dots per inch. For example, a 300-dpi (dots per inch) printer is one that is capable of
printing 300 distinct dots in a line 1 inch long. This means it can print 90,000 dots per
square inch. For graphics monitors, the screen resolution signifies the number of dots (pixels) on
the entire screen. For example, a 640-by-480 pixel screen is capable of displaying
640 distinct dots on each of 480 lines, or about 300,000 pixels.
The resolution can be divided into five categories:
1. Spatial resolution
2. Temporal resolution
3. Pixel resolution
4. Radiometric resolution
5. Spectral resolution
Spatial resolution is a term that refers to the number of pixels utilized in construction of a digital image. Images having higher spatial resolution are composed with a greater number of pixels than those of lower spatial resolution. That is the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution. The measure of how closely lines can be resolved in an image is called spatial resolution, and it depends on properties of the system creating the image, not just the pixel resolution in pixels per inch (ppi).
The spatial resolution of computer monitors is generally 72 to 100 lines per inch, corresponding to pixel resolutions of 72 to 100 ppi.
Temporal resolution refers to the precision of a measurement with respect to time. It depends on time. Movie cameras and high-speed cameras can resolve events at different points in time. The time resolution used for movies is usually 24 to 48 frames per second, while high-speed cameras may resolve 50 to 300 frames/s, or even more.
Pixel Resolution refers to the total number of pixels or dots that make up an entire image. There are usually different requirements for both printed material and images used for screens. Images for screen are usually 72 dpi (dots per inch) and images for print are normally 300 dpi.
Radiometric resolution determines how finely a system can represent or distinguish differences of intensity, and is usually expressed as a number of bits, for example 8 bits or 256 levels that is typical of computer image files. Radiometric resolution refers to the number of divisions of bit depth (for example, 255 for 8-bit, 65,536 for 16-bit, and so on) in data collected by a sensor.
Describe the ability of a sensor to distinguish between wavelength intervals in the electromagnetic spectrum. Multispectral images have higher spectral resolution than normal color images.
HD=1280/720(wide screen) or 1920/1080
PAL(Phase Alternating Line) = 768/576 or 720/576 or 1024/57
VGA(Video Graphics Array) = 320/240
VGA(NTSC) = 640/480(4:3)
CGA = 320/200
WVGA = 800/480
2K = 2048/1080 or 4K = 4096/2160 or 8K = 8192/4608
The Pixel Per Inch (PPI) of a computer display is related to the size of the display in
inches and the total number of pixels in the horizontal and vertical directions.
Dots Per Inch (DPI) is a measure of spatial printing or video dot density, in particular
the number of individual